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Herbicides

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2,4-D

2,4-D HRAC O WSSA 4 phenoxycarboxylic acid

NOMENCLATURE
2,4-D
Common name 2,4-D (BSI, E-ISO, (m) F-ISO, WSSA); 2,4-PA (JMAF) IUPAC name (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid
Chemical Abstracts name (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid CAS RN [94–75–7] EC no. 202–361–1 Development codes L208 (Marks) Smiles code OC(=O)COc1ccc(Cl)cc1Cl
2,4-D-butotyl
IUPAC name 2-butoxyethyl (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
CAS RN [1929–73–3] EC no. 217–680–1
2,4-D-butyl
IUPAC name butyl (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
CAS RN [94–80–4] EC no. 202–364–8
2,4-D-dimethylammonium
IUPAC name dimethylammonium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
CAS RN [2008–39–1] EC no. 217–915–8
2,4-D-diolamine (2,4-D-diethanolammonium)
IUPAC name bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
CAS RN [5742–19–8] EC no. 227–256–8
2,4-D-ethyl
IUPAC name ethyl (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
2,4-D-2-ethylhexyl
IUPAC name 2-ethylhexyl (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
Other names 2,4-D 2-EHE CAS RN [1928–43–4] EC no. 217–673–3 Development codes N208 (Marks)
2,4-D-isobutyl
IUPAC name 2-methylpropyl (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
CAS RN [1713–15–1] EC no. 216–992–5
2,4-D-isoctyl
IUPAC name octyl (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate (mixed octyl isomers)
CAS RN [25168–26–7], formerly [1280–20–2] EC no. 246–704–3
2,4-D-isopropyl
IUPAC name isopropyl (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
CAS RN [94–11–1] EC no. 202–305–6
2,4-D-isopropylammonium
CAS RN [5742–17–6], formerly [31489–36–8]
2,4-D-sodium
IUPAC name sodium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
CAS RN [2702–72–9] EC no. 220–290–4
2,4-D-triisopropanolammonium
Chemical Abstracts name (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, 1,1′,1′′-nitrilotris[2-propanol] salt (1:1) CAS RN [18584–79–7], formerly [29450–66–6] and [32341–80–3]
2,4-D-trolamine (2,4-D-triethanolammonium)
IUPAC name tris(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate
CAS RN [2569–01–9] EC no. 219–911–1
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Composition Tech. is ≥96% pure. Mol. wt. 221.0 M.f. C8H6Cl2O3 Form Colourless powder, with a slight phenolic odour. M.p. 140.5 °C V.p. 1.86 × 10-2 mPa (25 °C) (OECD 104) Kow logP = 2.58–2.83 (pH 1), 0.04–0.33 (pH 5); –0.75 (pH 7) (EPA RED) Henry 1.32 × 10-5 Pa m3 mol-1 (calc.) S.g./density 1.508 (20 °C) Solubility In water 311 (pH 1), 20 031 (pH 5), 23 180 (pH 7), 34 196 (pH 9) (all in mg/l, 25 °C). In ethanol 1250, diethyl ether 243, heptane 1.1, toluene 6.7, xylene 5.8 (all in g/kg, 20 °C); in octanol 120 g/l (25 °C). Insoluble in petroleum oils. Mono-n-butylamine salt: In water 18 g/l (30 °C). Stability 2,4-D is a strong acid, and forms water-soluble salts with alkali metals and amines. Hard water leads to precipitation of the calcium and magnesium salts, but a sequestering agent is included in formulations to prevent this. Photolytic DT50 (simulated sunlight) 7.5 d. pKa 2.73
2,4-D-butotyl
Mol. wt. 321.2 M.f. C14H18Cl2O4 B.p. 89 °C (EPA RED) V.p. 3.2 × 10-1 mPa (25 °C) (EPA RED) Kow logP = 4.13–4.17 (25 °C) (EPA RED) Solubility Insoluble in water (EPA RED).
2,4-D-butyl
Mol. wt. 277.1 M.f. C12H14Cl2O3
2,4-D-dimethylammonium
Mol. wt. 266.1 M.f. C10H13Cl2NO3 M.p. Decomp. c. 120 °C Solubility In water 72.9 g/100 ml (pH 7, 20 °C) (EPA RED).
2,4-D-diolamine (2,4-D-diethanolammonium)
Mol. wt. 326.2 M.f. C12H17Cl2NO5 M.p. 83 °C (EPA RED) Solubility In water 806 mg/g (25 °C) (EPA RED).
2,4-D-ethyl
Mol. wt. 249.1 M.f. C10H10Cl2O3
2,4-D-2-ethylhexyl
Composition Isomeric with 2,4-D-isoctyl; sometimes these names are used interchangeably. Mol. wt. 333.3 M.f. C16H22Cl2O3 Form Golden yellow, non-viscous liquid, with a sweet, slightly pungent odour. M.p. <–37 °C B.p. >300 °C (decomp.) V.p. 47.9 mPa (25 °C) Kow logP = 5.78 (25 °C) S.g./density 1.148 (20 °C) Solubility In water 0.086 mg/l (25 °C). Miscible with most organic solvents. Stability Hydrolysis DT50 <1 h. Stable to light, DT50 >100 d. Stable at 54 °C. F.p. 171 °C (Cleveland open cup)
2,4-D-isobutyl
Mol. wt. 277.1 M.f. C12H14Cl2O3
2,4-D-isoctyl
Composition Isomeric with 2,4-D-2-ethylhexyl; sometimes these names are used interchangeably. Mol. wt. 333.3 M.f. C16H22Cl2O3 Form Yellowish-brown liquid, with a phenolic odour. B.p. 317 °C S.g./density 1.14–1.17 g/ml (20 °C) Solubility In water 10 mg/l. F.p. 171 °C
2,4-D-isopropyl
Mol. wt. 263.1 M.f. C11H12Cl2O3 Form Colourless liquid. M.p. 5–10 °C and 20–25 °C (two forms) B.p. 240 °C (EPA RED); 130 °C/1 mmHg V.p. 1.4 Pa (25 °C) Kow logP = 2.4 (EPA RED) Solubility In water 0.023 g/100 ml (EPA RED). Soluble in alcohols and most oils.
2,4-D-isopropylammonium
Mol. wt. 280.2 M.f. C11H15Cl2NO3 M.p. 121 °C (EPA RED) Solubility In water 17.4 g/100 ml (pH 5.3, 20 °C) (EPA RED).
2,4-D-sodium
Mol. wt. 243.0 M.f. C8H5Cl2NaO3 Form White powder. M.p. 200 °C (EPA RED) Solubility In water 18 g/l (20 °C), 45 g/l (25 °C, EPA RED).
2,4-D-triisopropanolammonium
Mol. wt. 412.3 M.f. C17H27Cl2NO6 Solubility In water 46.1 g/100 ml (pH 7, 20 °C) (EPA RED).
2,4-D-trolamine (2,4-D-triethanolammonium)
Mol. wt. 370.2 M.f. C14H21Cl2NO6 M.p. 142–144 °C Solubility In water 4.4 kg/l (30 °C).
COMMERCIALISATION
History The potent effects of its salts on plant growth were first described by P. W. Zimmerman & A. E. Hitchcock (Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst., 1942, 12, 321), and its early history is covered in The Hormone Weedkillers. Manufacturers Agrochem; AgroDragon; Ancom; Anhui Huaxing; Atanor; Atul; Chongqing Shuangfeng; Crystal; Dow AgroSciences; G L Industries; Hebei Kaidi; Iprochem; Krishi Rasayan; Lucava; Nufarm GmbH; Nufarm Ltd; Nufarm UK; Proficol; Rainbow; Red Sun; Sanxi; Shandong Qiaochang; Sharda; Sundat; Wintafone; Zhejiang Huaxing
APPLICATIONS
Biochemistry Synthetic auxin (acting like indolylacetic acid). Mode of action Selective systemic herbicide. Salts are readily absorbed by the roots, whilst esters are readily absorbed by the foliage. Translocation occurs, with accumulation principally at the meristematic regions of shoots and roots. Acts as a growth inhibitor. Uses Post-emergence control of annual and perennial broad-leaved weeds in cereals, maize, sorghum, grassland, established turf, grass seed crops, orchards (pome fruit and stone fruit), cranberries, asparagus, sugar cane, rice, forestry, and on non-crop land (including areas adjacent to water), at 0.28–2.3 kg/ha. Control of broad-leaved aquatic weeds. The isopropyl ester can also be used as a plant growth regulator to prevent premature fruit fall in citrus fruit. Phytotoxicity Phytotoxic to most broad-leaved crops, especially cotton, vines, tomatoes, ornamentals, fruit trees, oilseed rape and beet.
2,4-D
Formulation types EC; GR; SL; SP; WP. Compatibility Compatibility depends upon the particular formulation.
2,4-D-butotyl
Formulation types EC.
2,4-D-dimethylammonium
Formulation types SL; SP.
2,4-D-diolamine (2,4-D-diethanolammonium)
Formulation types SL.
2,4-D-2-ethylhexyl
Formulation types EC.
2,4-D-isoctyl
Formulation types EC.
2,4-D-isopropylammonium
Formulation types SL.
2,4-D-sodium
Formulation types SL.
2,4-D-triisopropanolammonium
Formulation types SL.
PRODUCTS
2,4-D
Selected products ‘Damine’ (Agriphar) ; ‘Deferon’ (Milenia) ; ‘Herbextra’ (amine salt) (Baocheng) ; ‘Kay-D’ (mixture of sodium and amine salts with ethyl ester) (Krishi Rasayan) ; ‘SunGold’ (Sundat) Other products ‘AG-24’ (Zagro) ; ‘Aminex’ (Protex) ; ‘Capri’ (Makhteshim-Agan) ; ‘Dicopur 500’ (Nufarm GmbH) ; ‘Dicotox’ (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Dikamin’ (Agro-Chemie) ; ‘Dikocid’ (amine salt) (Herbos) ; ‘DMA-6’ (Zagro) ; ‘Dormone’ (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Harapmine’ (Zagro) ; ‘Hardball’ (Helena) ; ‘Hedonal’ (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Helena 2010’ (Helena) ; ‘Herbamine’ (Agrochem) ; ‘HM-2010’ (Helena) ; ‘Kay-m’ (amine salt) (Krishi Rasayan) ; ‘King’ (ester) (Chemiplant) ; ‘Malerbane Cereali’ (Chimiberg) ; ‘Maton’ (ester) (Headland, Marks) ; ‘Mortal’ (CAS) ; ‘Orchard Clean’ (unspecified amine salt) (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Patonok’ (Pato) ; ‘Sculpin’ (SePRO) ; ‘Statesman’ (Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Syford’ (Vitax) ; ‘Taniamine’ (Zagro) ; ‘U2-46’ (Zagro) ; ‘U 46 D’ (Nufarm SAS) ; ‘Unison’ (Helena) ; ‘Weedar’ (Bayer CropScience, Nufarm SAS) ; ‘Weedtox’ (Aimco) ; ‘Zura’ (amine salt) (Atul) mixtures ‘Aniten Duo’ (+ mecoprop-P + cinidon-ethyl) (Nufarm, Nufarm, Nufarm) ; ‘Brush-Rhap’ (+ dicamba) (Helena, Helena) ; ‘Camppex’ (+ mecoprop-P + MCPA + dichlorprop-P) (United Phosphorus Ltd, United Phosphorus Ltd, United Phosphorus Ltd, United Phosphorus Ltd) ; ‘D-638’ (+ 2,4-D-butotyl) (Albaugh, Albaugh) ; ‘Damex’ (+ MCPA) (Protex, Protex) ; ‘Débroussaillant 2D-P’ (unspecified esters) (+ dichlorprop-P) (Nufarm SAS, Nufarm SAS) ; ‘Debroussaillant 3 Voies’ (unspecified amine salts) (+ dichlorprop-P + triclopyr) (Nufarm SAS, Nufarm SAS, Nufarm SAS) ; ‘Dicotex’ (+ dicamba + MCPA + mecoprop-P) (Protex, Protex, Protex, Protex) ; ‘Dragopax’ (+ ametryn) (Agricultura Nacional, Agricultura Nacional) ; ‘Duplosan KV neu’ (+ mecoprop-P) (Nufarm GmbH, Nufarm GmbH) ; ‘Esteem’ (+ clopyralid + MCPA) (Vitax, Vitax, Vitax) ; ‘Esteron 638’ (+ 2,4-D-butotyl) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Granaplouse’ (unspecified amine salts) (+ dicamba) (Nufarm SAS, Nufarm SAS) ; ‘HM-0335 A’ (+ dicamba) (Helena, Helena) ; ‘Laingorde’ (+ 1-naphthylacetic acid) (Lainco, Lainco) ; ‘Laiteca’ (+ gibberellic acid + 1-naphthylacetic acid) (Lainco, Lainco, Lainco) ; ‘Latigo’ (+ dicamba) (Helena, Helena) ; ‘Mannejo’ (+ picloram) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Nox-D’ (+ propanil) (Crystal, Crystal) ; ‘Phenoxy 088’ (+ 2,4-D-butotyl) (Winfield Solutions, Winfield Solutions) ; ‘Recoil’ (+ glyphosate-isopropylammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Restore’ (+ aminopyralid) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Selectyl’ (+ mecoprop-P) (Sintagro, Sintagro) ; ‘Sitar’ (+ MCPA) (Agrimport, Agrimport) ; ‘Supertox’ (+ mecoprop) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Top Gun’ (+ metribuzin + metribuzin) (Loveland, Loveland, UAP, UAP) ; ‘UPL Camppex’ (+ MCPA-sodium + mecoprop-P-potassium + dichlorprop-P-potassium) (United Phosphorus, United Phosphorus, United Phosphorus, United Phosphorus) ; ‘Vegemec’ (+ prometon) (PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon) ; ‘Weedone 638’ (+ 2,4-D-butotyl) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Enlist Duo’ (+ glyphosate) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) Discontinued products ‘Chardol 40 *’ (ethanolamine salt) (Sedagri) ; ‘Cloroxone *’ (amine salt) (Sopra) ; ‘Crisalamina *’ (Crystal) ; ‘Dacamine *’ (GB Biosciences) ; ‘Destox *’ (MTM) ; ‘Easel *’ (2,4-D as an ester) (Nufarm UK) ; ‘Fernimine *’ (amine salt) (Solplant) ; ‘For-ester *’ (Vitax) ; ‘Herbifen *’ (Compañía Química) ; ‘Justice *’ (Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Palormone *’ (Unicrop) ; ‘Pennamine D *’ (octylammonium salt) (Cerexagri) ; ‘Quinoxone Liquide *’ (amine salt) (La Quinoléine) ; ‘Ragox *’ (ester) (Nufarm UK) mixtures ‘Aniten DS *’ (+ flurenol-butyl + flurenol-butyl) (Cyanamid, Cyanamid, Pinus, Pinus) ; ‘Aniten MPD *’ (+ mecoprop + flurenol-butyl + mecoprop + flurenol-butyl) (Cyanamid, Cyanamid, Cyanamid, Pinus, Pinus, Pinus) ; ‘Atladox HI *’ (+ picloram) (Nomix-Chipman, Nomix-Chipman) ; ‘Best One-Shot *’ (+ dicamba + dithiopyr + mecoprop-P) (Simplot, Simplot, Simplot, Simplot) ; ‘Broadshot *’ (+ triclopyr + dicamba) (Cyanamid, Cyanamid, Cyanamid) ; ‘Broadstrike Post *’ (+ clopyralid + flumetsulam) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Camppex *’ (+ mecoprop + dichlorprop + MCPA) (United Phosphorus Ltd, United Phosphorus Ltd, United Phosphorus Ltd, United Phosphorus Ltd) ; ‘Cleanrun *’ (+ mecoprop) (Zeneca, Zeneca) ; ‘Drago 3.4 *’ (+ flufenacet) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Novermone *’ (+ dichlorprop) (Nufarm SAS, Nufarm SAS) ; ‘Pasture MD *’ (+ dicamba + metsulfuron-methyl) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Scorpion III *’ (+ clopyralid + flumetsulam) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘SWK 333 *’ (+ dicamba) (Keychem, Keychem) ; ‘Sydex *’ (+ mecoprop) (Vitax, Vitax) ; ‘Weed and Brushkiller *’ (+ dicamba + mecoprop) (Vitax, Vitax, Vitax)
2,4-D-butotyl
Selected products ‘Erbitox LV-4’ (Siapa) Other products ‘Aqua-Kleen’ (Nufarm Ltd, United Phosphorus Inc.) ; ‘BEE-4’ (Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Diserbone E 54’ (Chemia) ; ‘E-99’ (Winfield Solutions) mixtures ‘Chaser Turf’ (+ triclopyr-butotyl + triclopyr-butotyl) (Loveland, Loveland, UAP, UAP) ; ‘Crossbow’ (+ triclopyr-butotyl + triclopyr-butotyl + triclopyr-butotyl) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences, Helena, Helena, Loveland, Loveland) ; ‘D-638’ (+ 2,4-D) (Albaugh, Albaugh) ; ‘Esteron 638’ (+ 2,4-D) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Phenoxy 088’ (+ 2,4-D) (Winfield Solutions, Winfield Solutions) ; ‘Weedone 638’ (+ 2,4-D) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) Discontinued products ‘Planotox *’ (May & Baker) ; ‘Quinoxone 600 *’ (La Quinoléine) mixtures ‘Envert 171 *’ (+ dichlorprop-butotyl) (Rhône-Poulenc, Rhône-Poulenc) ; ‘Weedone 170 *’ (+ dichlorprop-butotyl) (Rhône-Poulenc, Rhône-Poulenc) ; ‘Weedone CB *’ (+ dichlorprop-butotyl) (Rhône-Poulenc, Rhône-Poulenc)
2,4-D-butyl
Other products ‘Drago ester’ (Agricultura Nacional) ; ‘Mewahtox’ (Ancom) ; ‘Paditox’ (Ancom) ; ‘Silvester’ (Lucava) mixtures ‘Trinatox-D’ (+ ametryn) (Pyosa, Pyosa)
2,4-D-dimethylammonium
Selected products ‘Baton’ (Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Dioweed’ (United Phosphorus Ltd) ; ‘DMA-4’ (Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘DMA 6’ (Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Sanaphen D’ (SL) (Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Staff’ (Headland) ; ‘Yerbisol’ (Ingeniería Industrial) mixtures ‘Erbitox Combi’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium) (Siapa, Siapa) ; ‘U 46 Combi Fluid’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm Ltd, Nufarm Ltd) Other products ‘Agro D-Amin’ (AgroSan) ; ‘Amicide 500’ (Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Amine 4’ (Albaugh) ; ‘Aminoz 500’ (Sanonda Australia) ; ‘Aminugec’ (Phyteurop) ; ‘Anti Liseron’ (Nufarm SAS) ; ‘Calliherbe Spécial’ (Arysta LifeScience EAME) ; ‘Chardol 600’ (Nufarm SAS) ; ‘Clean Amine’ (Loveland, UAP) ; ‘Crisamina’ (Crystal) ; ‘Depitox’ (Nufarm UK) ; ‘Desormone’ (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Dioweed 50’ (United Phosphorus Ltd) ; ‘Dri-Clean’ (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Dymec’ (PBI/Gordon) ; ‘Fito amina’ (Agricultura Nacional) ; ‘Hektafermin’ (Hektaş) ; ‘Herbifen Amina’ (Atanor) ; ‘Herboxone’ (Headland, Marks) ; ‘HY-D’ (Agrichem Int.) ; ‘Lucamina’ (Lucava) ; ‘Opti-Amine’ (Helena) ; ‘Orchard Star’ (Albaugh) ; ‘Rarity’ (Ancom) ; ‘Saber’ (Loveland, UAP) ; ‘Savage’ (Loveland, UAP) ; ‘Selective Herbicide #1’ (Athea) ; ‘U 46 D Fluid’ (Nufarm) ; ‘Weedar 64’ (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Weedar IVM 44’ (Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Weedestroy AM40’ (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Weed Rhap A-4D’ (Helena) mixtures ‘Amicide 625’ (+ 2,4-D-diolamine (2,4-D-diethanolammonium)) (Nufarm Ltd, Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Aminoz 625’ (+ 2,4-D-diolamine (2,4-D-diethanolammonium)) (Sanonda Australia, Sanonda Australia) ; ‘Blatt Extra’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium) (Cequisa, Cequisa) ; ‘Brash’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium) (Winfield Solutions, Winfield Solutions) ; ‘Chaser 2 Amine’ (+ triclopyr-triethylammonium + triclopyr-triethylammonium) (Loveland, Loveland, UAP, UAP) ; ‘Cimarron Max’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium + metsulfuron-methyl) (DuPont, DuPont, DuPont) ; ‘Complexugec’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium) (Phyteurop, Phyteurop) ; ‘Dicopur Combi’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm GmbH, Nufarm GmbH) ; ‘Diserbone KN’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium) (Chemia, Chemia) ; ‘DPD-Amine’ (+ dichlorprop-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm Ltd, Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘EndRun’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium + mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Helena, Helena, Helena) ; ‘Escalade’ (dicamba as acid) (+ dicamba + fluroxypyr-meptyl) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Exelor’ (+ mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Stähler, Stähler) ; ‘Formula 40’ (+ 2,4-D-triisopropanolammonium + 2,4-D-triisopropanolammonium + 2,4-D-triisopropanolammonium) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences, Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Herbofital Combi’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium) (Sapec, Sapec) ; ‘KambaMaster’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Lonpar’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium + clopyralid-olamine (clopyralid-2-hydroxyethylammonium)) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Lupo’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm UK, Nufarm UK) ; ‘Magneto’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm UK, Nufarm UK) ; ‘Mec Amine D’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium + mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium + dicamba-dimethylammonium + mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Loveland, Loveland, Loveland, UAP, UAP, UAP) ; ‘Millennium Ultra 2’ (+ clopyralid-olamine (clopyralid-2-hydroxyethylammonium) + dicamba-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Polo’ (+ MCPA-dimethylammonium) (Headland, Headland) ; ‘Q4’ (+ quinclorac + sulfentrazone + dicamba-dimethylammonium) (PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon) ; ‘Quincept’ (+ dicamba + quinclorac) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Range Star’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium) (Albaugh, Albaugh) ; ‘Rifle D’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium + dicamba-dimethylammonium) (Loveland, Loveland, UAP, UAP) ; ‘Selective Herbicide #3’ (+ 2,4-D-triisopropanolammonium) (Athea, Athea) ; ‘Spoiler’ (+ mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium + dichlorprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Strike 3’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium + mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Winfield Solutions, Winfield Solutions, Winfield Solutions) ; ‘Surge’ (+ mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium + sulfentrazone + dicamba-dimethylammonium) (PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon) ; ‘Surpass 475’ (+ 2,4-D-diolamine (2,4-D-diethanolammonium)) (Nufarm Ltd, Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Sydex’ (+ mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Vitax, Vitax) ; ‘Thrust’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm UK, Nufarm UK) ; ‘Triamine’ (+ dichlorprop-P-dimethylammonium + mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Tri Kil’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium + mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Agrium, Agrium, Agrium) ; ‘Trimec’ ((several products in the Trimec range have the same a.i.s)) (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium + mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon) ; ‘Trimec Plus’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium + mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium + MSMA) (PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon) ; ‘Triple Threat’ (+ dichlorprop-P-dimethylammonium + mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Athea, Athea, Athea) ; ‘Tucson’ (+ picloram-triethylammonium) (Nufarm Industria Quimica, Nufarm Industria Quimica) ; ‘Turflon II Amine’ (+ triclopyr-triethylammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Turf Rite’ (+ mecoprop-P-dimethylammonium) (Agrium, Agrium) ; ‘Veteran 720’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Weedmaster’ (+ dicamba-dimethylammonium + dicamba-dimethylammonium) (BASF, BASF, Syngenta, Syngenta) Discontinued products ‘Agricorn D *’ (Nufarm UK) ; ‘Ded-Weed *’ (Chemtura) ; ‘Haybob II *’ (Barclay) ; ‘Spritz-Hormin *’ (Nufarm GmbH) mixtures ‘2 Plus 2 *’ (mecoprop also as dimethylammonium salt) (+ mecoprop) (ISK Biosciences, ISK Biosciences) ; ‘Lancet *’ (+ fluroxypyr-2-butoxy-1-methylethyl) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences)
2,4-D-diolamine (2,4-D-diethanolammonium)
Other products ‘EH 1330’ (PBI/Gordon) mixtures ‘Amicide 625’ (+ 2,4-D-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm Ltd, Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Amicide 625-Low’ (+ 2,4-D-trolamine (2,4-D-triethanolammonium)) (Nufarm Ltd, Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Aminoz 625’ (+ 2,4-D-dimethylammonium) (Sanonda Australia, Sanonda Australia) ; ‘Surpass 475’ (+ 2,4-D-dimethylammonium) (Nufarm Ltd, Nufarm Ltd)
2,4-D-ethyl
Selected products ‘Smash’ (Nagarjuna Agrichem) Other products ‘Electron’ (Devidayal) ; ‘Estercide 800’ (Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Fire’ (Jubilant Organosys) ; ‘Rugo’ (Atul) ; ‘Weedkill’ (BEC) ; ‘Weedmar’ (Dhanuka)
2,4-D-2-ethylhexyl
Selected products ‘Esteron 6E’ (Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Esteron 99C’ (Dow AgroSciences) mixtures ‘Maestro D’ (+ bromoxynil octanoate) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) Other products ‘Barrage’ (Helena) ; ‘Estercide Xtra’ (Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Esteron 99’ (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Estet’ (Nufarm GmbH) ; ‘Fivestar’ (Albaugh) ; ‘Lentemul’ (Nufarm GmbH) ; ‘Low Vol 4 Ester’ (Loveland, UAP) ; ‘LV 4’ (Albaugh) ; ‘LV 6’ (Albaugh) ; ‘LV Estercide 600’ (Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Salvo’ (Loveland, UAP) ; ‘Turret’ (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Weedkiller 4D’ (Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Weedone 650’ (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Weedone LV4’ (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Weedone LV6’ (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Weed-Rhap’ (Helena) mixtures ‘Actril’ (+ ioxynil octanoate) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Actril DS’ (+ ioxynil octanoate) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Adrenalin’ (Canada) (+ imazamox) (BASF, BASF) ; ‘B-4’ (+ bromoxynil octanoate + bromoxynil heptanoate) (Agsco, Agsco, Agsco) ; ‘Broadsword’ (+ triclopyr-butotyl + dicamba-butotyl + triclopyr-butotyl + dicamba-butotyl) (Agriphar, Agriphar, Agriphar, United Phosphorus Ltd, United Phosphorus Ltd, United Phosphorus Ltd) ; ‘Double Up’ (+ bromoxynil octanoate) (Helena, Helena) ; ‘Genoxone’ (+ triclopyr-butotyl + triclopyr-butotyl) (Protex, Protex, Stähler, Stähler) ; ‘Greengard’ (+ dicamba + triclopyr-butotyl) (Barclay, Barclay, Barclay) ; ‘Holster’ (+ dicamba + fluroxypyr-meptyl) (Barclay, Barclay, Barclay) ; ‘Junction’ (+ florasulam) (Rigby Taylor, Rigby Taylor) ; ‘Nu-Shot’ (+ triclopyr-butotyl + dicamba-butotyl) (Nufarm UK, Nufarm UK, Nufarm UK) ; ‘Nutril’ (+ ioxynil octanoate) (Nufarm Ltd, Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Oasis’ (+ imazapic) (BASF, BASF) ; ‘Outlaw’ (+ dicamba + dicamba) (Albaugh, Albaugh, Helena, Helena) ; ‘Patron’ (+ dichlorprop-P-2-ethylhexyl) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Shotgun’ (+ atrazine + atrazine) (Loveland, Loveland, UAP, UAP) ; ‘ShutOut’ (+ carfentrazone-ethyl + mecoprop-P) (Helena, Helena, Helena) ; ‘SpeedZone’ (+ dicamba + mecoprop-P + carfentrazone-ethyl) (PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon) ; ‘Super Trimec’ (+ dicamba + dichlorprop-P-2-ethylhexyl) (PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon) ; ‘Tiller’ (+ MCPA-2-ethylhexyl + fenoxaprop-P-ethyl) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Turf Weed & Brush Control’ (+ dichlorprop-P-2-ethylhexyl) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) mixtures ‘Certrol DS *’ (+ ioxynil octanoate) (Nufarm SAS, Nufarm SAS) ; ‘Sansac *’ (+ metosulam) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Sound *’ (+ metosulam) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Trimec Turf Ester *’ (+ dichlorprop-P-2-ethylhexyl + dicamba) (PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon)
2,4-D-isobutyl
mixtures ‘Rogue’ (+ butachlor) (Sinochem International, Sinochem International) Other products ‘Herbifen Super’ (Atanor) mixtures ‘Trinatox-D’ (+ ametryn) (Pyosa, Pyosa)
2,4-D-isoctyl
Selected products ‘Esterdefore’ (Vapco) ; ‘Sanaphen D’ (EC) (Dow AgroSciences) Other products ‘Agro D-Ester’ (AgroSan) ; ‘Citrofix’ (Sipcam Inagra) ; ‘Ester’H’ (Hektaş) ; ‘Hot Ester’ (Doğal) mixtures ‘Barren’ (+ bromacil) (Athea, Athea) ; ‘Brushmaster’ (+ dicamba + dichlorprop-P-2-ethylhexyl) (PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon, PBI/Gordon) ; ‘Green Up Weedfree’ (+ dicamba) (Vitax, Vitax) ; ‘Lotus D’ (+ cinidon-ethyl) (Nufarm, Nufarm) ; ‘New Estermone’ (+ dicamba) (Vitax, Vitax) ; ‘Non-Selective Herbicide #1’ (+ bromacil) (Athea, Athea) ; ‘Vacate’ (+ bromacil) (Athea, Athea) Discontinued products ‘Dicotox *’ (Rhône-Poulenc) ; ‘Dicotox Extra *’ (Rhône-Poulenc) ; ‘No-Sol 400 *’ (Rhône-Poulenc) ; ‘Supramone *’ (Rhône-Poulenc) ; ‘Weedone Lo Vol 6 *’ (Rhône-Poulenc) mixtures ‘Tiller *’ (+ fenoxaprop-P-ethyl + MCPA-2-ethylhexyl) (AgrEvo, AgrEvo, AgrEvo)
2,4-D-isopropyl
Selected products ‘Citrus Fix’ (Amvac) Other products ‘Alphaset’ (Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Hivol’ (Amvac)
2,4-D-isopropylammonium
Other products ‘Aminoz CT 225’ (Sanonda Australia) ; ‘Keris’ (Ancom) ; ‘Kompressor’ (Ancom) ; ‘Protégé’ (Ancom) ; ‘Surpass 300’ (Nufarm Ltd) mixtures ‘Evo’ (+ glyphosate-isopropylammonium) (Ancom, Ancom) ; ‘Glymix’ (+ glyphosate-isopropylammonium) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Hat-Trick’ (+ glyphosate-isopropylammonium) (Ancom, Ancom) ; ‘Kontraktor’ (+ glyphosate-isopropylammonium) (Ancom, Ancom) ; ‘Landmaster’ (+ glyphosate-isopropylammonium) (Monsanto, Monsanto) mixtures ‘Campaign *’ (+ glyphosate-isopropylammonium) (Monsanto, Monsanto) ; ‘RT Master *’ (+ glyphosate-isopropylammonium) (Monsanto, Monsanto)
2,4-D-sodium
Selected products ‘Safaya’ (Devidayal) mixtures ‘Duoduoshou’ (+ sodium p-nitrophenolate + sodium o-nitrophenolate + sodium 1-naphthylacetate) (Zhongwei, Zhongwei, Zhongwei, Zhongwei) Other products ‘Salix’ (Atul) ; ‘Weedmar’ (Dhanuka) mixtures ‘Dasaflo’ (+ DSMA + diuron) (Ancom, Ancom, Ancom) ; ‘Dasatox’ (+ diuron + DSMA) (Ancom, Ancom, Ancom) Discontinued products ‘Dikonirt *’ (Nitrokémia) mixtures ‘Trik *’ (+ amitrole + diuron) (Nufarm UK, Nufarm UK, Nufarm UK)
2,4-D-triisopropanolammonium
mixtures ‘Combatran’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Commando’ (+ clopyralid-olamine (clopyralid-2-hydroxyethylammonium)) (Albaugh, Albaugh) ; ‘Curtail’ (+ clopyralid-olamine (clopyralid-2-hydroxyethylammonium)) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Cutback’ (+ clopyralid-olamine (clopyralid-2-hydroxyethylammonium)) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Flash’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘ForeFront’ (+ aminopyralid-triisopropanolammonium) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Formula 40’ (+ 2,4-D-dimethylammonium + 2,4-D-dimethylammonium + 2,4-D-dimethylammonium) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences, Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Grazon P+D’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘GunSlinger’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Albaugh, Albaugh) ; ‘Kuron M’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Pathway’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Selective Herbicide #3’ (+ 2,4-D-dimethylammonium) (Athea, Athea) ; ‘Tordon 101’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Tordon RTU’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences) ; ‘Trooper 101’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Trooper P+D’ (+ picloram-triisopropanolammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Xrm-5202 Premium’ (+ clopyralid-triisopropanolammonium + triclopyr-triethylammonium) (Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas, Nufarm Americas)
2,4-D-trolamine (2,4-D-triethanolammonium)
mixtures ‘Amicide 625-Low’ (+ 2,4-D-diolamine (2,4-D-diethanolammonium)) (Nufarm Ltd, Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Banvine’ (+ dicamba-trolamine (dicamba-triethanolammonium)) (Dow AgroSciences, Dow AgroSciences)
ANALYSIS
Product analysis of 2,4-D, salts, esters and mixed combination products by acid–base titration, by glc (CIPAC Handbook, 1985, 1C, 2060, 2257; 1994, F, 292–319), by rplc with uv (AOAC Methods, 18th Ed., 971.07, 976.03, 978.05, 984.07; CIPAC Handbook, 1985, 1C, 2060; 1988, D, 51), by hplc (ibid., 1983, 1757), by i.r. spectrometry (ibid., 1998, H, 131), or by an epinasty determination (AOAC Methods, 18th Ed., 960.10). Free phenol impurity determined by glc (CIPAC Handbook, 1994, F, 197), by hplc (ibid., 1994, F, 362) or electrochemically (ibid., 1994, F, 368). Residues determined by glc of derivatives (Anal. Methods Pestic. Plant Growth Regul., 1972, 6, 630), by hplc (M. Meier et al., Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem., 1989, 334, 235), or by gc with

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