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Fungicides

Current Location: Home > Products > Fungicides

Tebuconazole

FRAC 3, G1 SBI Class I, DMI: triazole

NOMENCLATURE
Common name tébuconazole ((m) F-ISO); tebuconazole (BSI, E-ISO) IUPAC name (RS)-1-p-chlorophenyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)pentan-3-ol
Chemical Abstracts name (±)-α-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol Other names fenetrazole*; terbuconazole*; terbutrazole*; ethyltrianol* CAS RN [107534–96–3] EC no. 403–640–2 Development codes HWG 1608 (Bayer) Smiles code CC(C)(C)C(O)(CCc1ccc(Cl)cc1)Cn2cncn2
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Composition Racemate. Mol. wt. 307.8 M.f. C16H22ClN3O Form Colourless crystals; (tech., colourless to light brown powder). M.p. 105 °C V.p. 1.7 × 10-3 mPa (20 °C) (OECD 104) Kow logP = 3.7 (20 °C) Henry 1 × 10-5 Pa m3 mol-1 (20 °C) S.g./density 1.25 (26 °C) Solubility In water 36 mg/l (pH 5–9, 20 °C). In dichloromethane >200, isopropanol, toluene 50–100, hexane <0.1 (all in g/l, 20 °C). Stability Stable to elevated temperatures, and to photolysis and hydrolysis in pure water, under sterile conditions; hydrolysis DT50 >1 y (pH 4–9, 22 °C). See also Environmental Fate.
COMMERCIALISATION
History Fungicide reported by Kuck & Berg (Mitt. Biol. Bundesanstalt. Land.-Forstwirtsch. Berlin-Dahlem, 1986, 232, 196). Introduced by Bayer AG in South Africa in 1988. Patents EP 40345; US 4723984; there are also a series of production process, formulation, mixture and application method patents. Manufacturers Bayer CropScience; AgroDragon; Anhui Huaxing; Astec; Cheminova; Dongbu Fine; EastSun; Fengdeng; Fertiagro; Hui Kwang; AGROFINA; Jiangsu Seven Continent; JIE; Milenia; Nagarjuna Agrichem; Ningbo Finechem; Nortox; Punjab; Rotam; Sanonda Zhengzhou; Shandong Huayang; Shanghai Shengnong; Sharda; Shenyang Research; Sinochem Jiangsu; Sinochem Ningbo; Sundat; Suzhou Hengtai; Tagros; Tide; Yancheng Limin
APPLICATIONS
Biochemistry Sterol demethylation (ergosterol biosynthesis) inhibitor. Mode of action Systemic fungicide with protective, curative and eradicative action. Rapidly absorbed into the vegetative parts of the plant, with translocation principally acropetally. Uses As a seed dressing, tebuconazole is effective against various Smut and bunt diseases of cereals, such as Tilletia spp., Ustilago spp. and Urocystis spp., also against Septoria nodorum (seed-borne), at 1–3 g/dt seed; and Sphacelotheca reiliana in maize, at 7.5 g/dt seed. As a spray, tebuconazole controls numerous pathogens in various crops, including: rust species (Puccinia spp.) at 125–250 g/ha, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) at 200–250 g/ha, scald (Rhynchosporium secalis) at 200–312 g/ha, Septoria spp. at 200–250 g/ha, Pyrenophora spp. at 200–312 g/ha, Cochliobolus sativus at 150–200 g/ha, and head scab (Fusarium spp.) at 188–250 g/ha, in cereals; Leaf spots (Mycosphaerella spp.) at 125–250 g/ha, leaf rust (Puccinia arachidis) at 125 g/ha, and Sclerotium rolfsii at 200–250 g/ha, in peanuts; black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) at 100 g/ha, in bananas; stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) at 250–375 g/ha, Alternaria spp. at 150–250 g/ha, stem canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) at 250 g/ha, and Pyrenopeziza brassicae at 125–250 g/ha, in oilseed rape; blister blight (Exobasidium vexans) at 25 g/ha, in tea; Phakopsora pachyrhizi at 100–150 g/ha, in soya beans; Monilinia spp. at 12.5–18.8 g/100 l, powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) at 10.0–12.5 g/100 l, Sphaerotheca pannosa at 12.5–18.8 g/100 l, scab (Venturia spp.) at 7.5–10.0 g/100 l, and apple white rot (Botryosphaeria dothidea) at 25 g/100 l, in pome and stone fruit; powdery mildew (Uncinula necator) at 100 g/ha, in grapevines; rust (Hemileia vastatrix) at 125–250 g/ha, berry spot disease (Cercospora coffeicola) at 188–250 g/ha, and American leaf disease (Mycena citricolor) at 125–188 g/ha, in coffee; white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) at 250–375 g/ha, and purple blotch (Alternaria porri) at 125–250 g/ha, in bulb vegetables; leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola) at 250 g/ha, in beans; early blight (Alternaria solani) at 150–200 g/ha, in tomatoes and potatoes. Phytotoxicity Good plant compatibility in most crops with any formulation, and achieved in more sensitive crops by appropriate formulations, e.g. WP, WG or SC. Formulation types DS; EC; ES; EW; FS; GF; ME; PA; SC; SE; WG; WP; WS.
PRODUCTS
Selected products ‘Elite’ (spray, USA) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Eraliscur’ (Fertiagro) ; ‘Folicur’ (spray) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Horizon’ (spray) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Metacil’ (Crop Health) ; ‘Orius’ (Makhteshim-Agan) ; ‘Raxil’ (seed treatment) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Riza’ (Cheminova) ; ‘Sparta’ (Cheminova) ; ‘Tomcat’ (Rocca) mixtures ‘Falcon 460’ (spray, E. Europe, Algeria) (+ triadimenol + spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Gladio’ (+ fenpropidin + propiconazole) (Syngenta, Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Lamardor’ (seed treatment) (+ prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Matador’ (spray) (+ triadimenol + triadimenol) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Stähler, Stähler) ; ‘Nativo’ (spray) (+ trifloxystrobin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Prosaro’ (+ prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil S’ (seed treatment) (+ triazoxide) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Scenic’ (seed treatment) (+ fluoxastrobin + prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Soleil’ (+ bromuconazole) (Sumitomo Europe, Sumitomo Europe) ; ‘Skyway Xpro’ (+ prothioconazole + bixafen) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Luna Experience’ (+ fluopyram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Star’ (+ fluopyram + prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) Other products ‘Abnakis’ (spray, France) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Aster’ (Cequisa) ; ‘Aurigen’ (seed treatment, UK) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Balmora’ (spray, France ) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Baltazar’ (spray, France ) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Baycal 25’ (spray, S Korea) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Bayer UK 226’ (seed treatment ) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Bezel’ (painting, UK) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Clean Leaf’ (AGROFINA) ; ‘Clean seed’ (AGROFINA) ; ‘Corail’ (spray, France) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Embrace’ (Winfield Solutions) ; ‘Folicur Rindenverschluss’ (painting, Germany) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur SE’ (spray, Italy) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur Solo’ (spray, Romania) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur WG’ (spray, Italy) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Fox’ (Sapec) ; ‘Gizmo’ (seed treatment) (Nufarm) ; ‘Heksil’ (Hektaş) ; ‘Horizon Arbo’ (spray, France) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Horizont’ (spray, Switzerland) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Hornet’ (Nufarm Ltd) ; ‘Icon’ (Agriguard) ; ‘Kasir’ (spray, Poland) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Libero Top’ (spray, Portugal) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Lousal’ (Sapec) ; ‘Lynx’ (spray, Czechia, Slovakia) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Maronee’ (spray, France) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Miracle’ (Hektaş) ; ‘Muscle’ (Sipcam USA) ; ‘Mystic’ (Nufarm) ; ‘Mystique’ (Nufarm UK) ; ‘Nik’ (Agrimix) ; ‘OnlyOne’ (Bayer CropScience, Hokko) ; ‘Ornament’ (spray, Czechia) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil 2.6 F’ (seed treatment, USA) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Liquido’ (seed treatment, Italy) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Rival’ (Nufarm Industria Quimica) ; ‘Sativa’ (Nufarm Americas) ; ‘Silvacur’ (spray) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Silvacur Flowable’ (spray, Japan, S Korea) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience K.K.) ; ‘Stealth 20’ (spray, S Korea) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Tabou’ (spray, France) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Tabulon’ (spray, France ) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Tebon’ (Hui Kwang) ; ‘Tebuhelm’ (Helm Brasil) ; ‘Tebuject’ (Mauget) ; ‘Tebustar’ (Albaugh) ; ‘Tebuzol’ (United Phosphorus Inc.) ; ‘Templo’ (Afrasa) ; ‘Triade’ (spray, France) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Uppercut’ (DuPont) ; ‘V.I.P.’ (Chemia) mixtures ‘Abilis’ (spray, France) (+ triadimenol) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Absolute’ (spray, USA, Mexico) (+ trifloxystrobin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Adament’ (spray, USA) (+ trifloxystrobin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Agate’ (spray, UK) (+ prochloraz) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Arena C’ (seed treatment, Germany) (+ fludioxonil) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Balaika’ (spray, France) (+ prochloraz) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Bayazzo’ (seed treatment, Germany) (+ fluoxastrobin + prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Buster’ (spray, France) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Cabestor’ (spray, France) (+ propiconazole) (Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Cello’ (spray, UK, Ireland) (+ prothioconazole + spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Cogito’ (spray) (+ propiconazole) (Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Coloso’ (spray, C. America) (+ triadimenol) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Consist Full’ (spray, Chile) (+ trifloxystrobin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Corinth’ (spray, UK) (+ prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Coronet’ (spray, UK) (+ trifloxystrobin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Cosinus’ (spray, France) (+ propiconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Delicia Deltox-Activ’ (+ permethrin) (Frunol, Frunol) ; ‘Delicia Deltox-Combi’ (+ dichlofluanid + permethrin) (Frunol, Frunol, Frunol) ; ‘Dubelt Jeczmien’ (seed treatment, Poland) (+ triazoxide) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘EFA’ (seed treatment, Germany, Switzerland ) (+ triazoxide + fluoxastrobin + prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Eumji’ (spray, S Korea) (+ tolylfluanid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Férial Orge’ (seed treatment, France) (+ imidacloprid + triazoxide) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Flint Max’ (spray, Romania) (+ trifloxystrobin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur BT’ (spray, E Europe) (+ triadimefon) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur Combi’ (spray, Italy) (+ sulfur) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Gaucho Orge’ (seed treatment, France, Belgium) (+ imidacloprid + triazoxide) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Gaucho Rx 246 FS’ (seed treatment, Sudan, Ethiopia, Latin America) (+ imidacloprid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Gaucho XT’ (seed treatment, USA) (+ imidacloprid + metalaxyl) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Grail’ (+ prochloraz) (Nufarm UK, Nufarm UK) ; ‘Hombre’ (+ imidacloprid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Hudson’ (spray, France) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Inca’ (spray, Belgium) (+ carbendazim) (BASF, BASF) ; ‘Kestrel’ (spray, UK) (+ prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Landor CT’ (seed treatment, Germany) (+ difenoconazole + fludioxonil) (Syngenta, Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Libéro’ (spray, France, Belgium) (+ carbendazim) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Mandrake’ (spray, France) (+ triadimenol) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Masterlin PTS’ (seed treatment, Romania) (+ gamma-HCH) (Oltchim, Oltchim) ; ‘Milord’ (spray, France) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Milraz Combi’ (spray, Portugal) (+ cymoxanil + propineb) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Orius 5’ (+ imazalil) (Makhteshim-Agan, Makhteshim-Agan) ; ‘Orius 6’ (+ imazalil) (Makhteshim-Agan, Makhteshim-Agan) ; ‘Pentangle’ (+ chlorothalonil) (Nufarm UK, Nufarm UK) ; ‘Porto’ (+ carbendazim) (Herbos, Herbos) ; ‘Proceed’ (seed treatment, USA) (+ metalaxyl + prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Pronto Plus’ (spray, Germany, Austria, Switzerland) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Prosper Plus 383’ (spray, Chile) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Prosper Trio 460’ (spray, Chile) (+ triadimenol + spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Provost 433’ (spray, USA) (+ prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Pucara’ (spray, Argentina, Uruguay) (+ prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil 515 FS’ (seed treatment, E. Europe) (+ thiram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Allegiance’ (seed treatment, USA) (+ metalaxyl) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Complex Liquido’ (seed treatment, Italy) (+ imazalil) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Deter’ (seed treatment, UK ) (+ triazoxide + clothianidin + prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil ES’ (seed treatment, Czechia) (+ imazalil) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Extra’ (seed treatment, Poland, Baltic states) (+ thiram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Gel 206’ (seed treatment, Poland) (+ thiram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil IM 035’ (seed treatment, Poland) (+ imazalil) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil MD Extra’ (seed treatment, USA) (+ imazalil + metalaxyl) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil MD Extra W’ (seed treatment, USA) (+ imazalil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil MD Fungicide’ (seed treatment, USA, Canada) (+ metalaxyl) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil MD-W’ (seed treatment, USA) (+ imidacloprid + metalaxyl) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Plus’ (seed treatment, Mexico) (+ thiram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Pro’ (seed treatment, UK ) (+ triazoxide + prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Secur’ (seed treatment, UK) (+ imidacloprid + triazoxide) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil T’ (seed treatment, Netherlands) (+ thiram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil-Thiram’ (seed treatment, USA, Canada) (+ thiram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil TM Liquido’ (seed treatment, Italy) (+ thiram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil TNT’ (seed treatment, Czechia, Slovakia) (+ triazoxide) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil T Seed Dressing’ (seed treatment, Australia) (+ triflumuron) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Vital’ (seed treatment, E Europe) (+ thiram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil XT’ (seed treatment, USA) (+ metalaxyl) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Silvacur’ (spray, UK) (+ triadimenol) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Silvacur Combi’ (spray, Central America) (+ triadimenol) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Soligor’ (spray, Ukraine) (+ spiroxamine + prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Teldor Combi’ (spray, Peru) (+ fenhexamid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Tieblack’ (spray, S Korea) (+ fenhexamid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Tie Break’ (spray, Chile) (+ fenhexamid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Tilmor’ (spray, Poland) (+ prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Traper’ (spray, Poland) (+ prothioconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Turfshiva’ (spray, Taiwan, S Korea ) (+ pencycuron) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Turfsiba’ (spray, Taiwan, S Korea) (+ pencycuron) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Utari’ (spray, S Korea) (+ pencycuron) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Veto F’ (spray, UK) (+ triadimenol) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Young-gune’ (spray, S Korea) (+ fenhexamid) (Kyung Nong, Kyung Nong) ; ‘Yunta’ (seed treatment, Romania, South America) (+ imidacloprid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Zamir’ (+ prochloraz) (Makhteshim-Agan, Makhteshim-Agan) ; ‘Thyme’ (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Zantara’ (+ bixafen) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Celest Orge Net’ (seed treatment, France) (+ fludioxonil + cyprodinil) (Syngenta, Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Celest Trio’ (seed treatment) (+ difenoconazole + fludioxonil) (Syngenta, Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Magnello’ (+ difenoconazole) (Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Maxim Forte’ (+ azoxystrobin + fludioxonil) (Syngenta, Syngenta, Syngenta) Discontinued products ‘Busker *’ (Barclay) ; ‘Calao *’ (spray, France) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Fuban *’ (AGROFINA) ; ‘Gainer *’ (spray, UK) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Halt *’ (spray, UK) (Bayer) ; ‘Raxil Dry *’ (seed treatment, Australia) (Bayer) ; ‘Raxil Flowable *’ (seed treatment, Australia) (Bayer) ; ‘Raxil R *’ (seed treatment, South Africa) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil WS *’ (seed treatment, Italy) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Silvacur C *’ (spray, Uruguay) (Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Silvacur FH *’ (spray, Uruguay) (Bayer CropScience) mixtures ‘Akzent *’ (seed treatment, Germany, Switzerland) (+ guazatine acetates) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Allicur *’ (spray, UK) (+ tridemorph) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Alpha Raxil CA *’ (seed treatment, France) (+ anthraquinone + captan) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Arena *’ (seed treatment, Germany) (+ fenpiclonil) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Array *’ (spray, UK) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Aurore *’ (spray, France) (+ tridemorph) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Bayer UK 413 *’ (spray, UK) (+ carbendazim) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Bayer UK 506 *’ (spray, UK ) (+ fenpropimorph) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Bayer UK 552 *’ (spray, UK ) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Beam *’ (spray, UK) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Boson *’ (seed treatment, Germany) (+ guazatine acetates) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Bronze *’ (spray, UK) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Bufalo *’ (spray, Belgium) (+ fenpropidin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Cartoon *’ (spray, France) (+ carbendazim) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Celest Orge’ (seed treatment, France) (+ anthraquinone + fludioxonil + cyprodinil) (Syngenta, Syngenta, Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Diams *’ (spray, France) (+ prochloraz) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Dipper *’ (+ tridemorph) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Draco *’ (spray, UK) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Endeavour *’ (spray, UK) (+ propiconazole) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Épopée *’ (spray, France) (+ prochloraz) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur Bayfidan *’ (spray, Switzerland) (+ triadimenol) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Folicur C *’ (spray, S. Africa) (+ carbendazim) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur Combi *’ (spray, Spain) (+ dichlofluanid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur E *’ (spray, E. Europe) (+ dichlofluanid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur EM *’ (spray, Germany, Austria, Hungary) (+ tolylfluanid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur Forte *’ (spray, Ireland) (+ fenpropidin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur Multi *’ (spray, Hungary, Croatia) (+ tolylfluanid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur Star *’ (spray, UK) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Folicur Top *’ (spray, Hungary) (+ triadimefon) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Garnet *’ (spray, UK) (+ triadimenol) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Hattrick *’ (spray, Czechia, Slovakia) (+ tolylfluanid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Larin *’ (seed treatment, Germany) (+ fenpiclonil + imazalil) (Syngenta, Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Lunar *’ (spray, UK ) (+ prochloraz) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Monicle *’ (spray, UK) (+ fenpropidin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Nébraska *’ (spray, France) (+ prochloraz) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Orca *’ (spray, Belgium) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Pronto *’ (spray, Germany) (+ fenpropidin) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Ranger *’ (spray, Germany) (+ fenpropimorph) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Raxil *’ (seed treatment, Norway) (+ triazoxide) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Raxil C *’ (seed treatment, Australia) (+ cypermethrin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil Combi *’ (seed treatment, Spain) (+ triazoxide) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Raxil Flow 515 *’ (seed treatment, Chile) (+ thiram) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil G *’ (seed treatment) (+ guazatine acetates) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Raxil WS *’ (seed treatment, E Europe) (+ imazalil) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Ruby *’ (spray, UK) (+ triadimenol) (Bayer, Bayer) ; ‘Rush *’ (spray, France) (+ fenpropidin) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Sage *’ (spray, UK) (+ spiroxamine) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Solitär’ (seed treatment, Germany) (+ fludioxonil + cyprodinil) (Syngenta, Syngenta, Syngenta) ; ‘Toreador *’ (spray, S. Africa) (+ carbendazim) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Tricur *’ (spray, UK) (+ carbendazim) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience) ; ‘Zorro *’ (+ imidacloprid) (Bayer CropScience, Bayer CropScience)
ANALYSIS
Product analysis by glc with FID (CIPAC Handbook, 1998, H, 261; AOAC Methods, 18th Ed., 997.01). Residues in soil, water and plant material determined by glc (W. Maasfeld, Pflanz.-Nachr. Bayer (Engl. Edn.), 1987, 40, 29; H. Allmendinger, ibid., 1991, 44, 5; Resid. Anal. Methods; Environ. Chem. Methods). See also Pestic. Anal. Man., II, 180.474. Details available from Bayer CropScience.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Animals In rats, after three days, elimination was almost complete (>99% of the recovered dose). Tebuconazole was excreted with the urine and the faeces. In lactating goats and laying hens, tebuconazole was mainly metabolised via hydroxylation and conjugation. Plants Metabolism studies in representative crops show that tebuconazole is the major terminal residue in grapes and peanut and cereal straw. In cereal grains, triazole alanine is the main metabolite (similar to the metabolism of other parent triazoles). In plant tissue, mean DT50 in the range 7–12 d could be derived (cereals), depending on the data base taken. Soil/Environment The degradation of tebuconazole in soil was slow in laboratory studies. Under field conditions, the compound degraded much more rapidly, and did not accumulate in long-term studies (3–5 y). Since no residues could be detected in deeper soil layers of these and other studies, and adsorption/desorption studies indicated a low mobility in the soil, groundwater contamination through leaching can be excluded. In natural waters, hydrolysis and indirect photolysis occur; in a pond study, the compound dissipated from the water body with DT50 4–6 w. Low vapour pressure and strong adsorption result in low volatilisation into the air.
TOXICOLOGICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEWS
JMPR Mtg. 80 (1997); JMPR Evaln. I 72 (1994), 78 (1996), 81 (1997), 114 (2008); JMPR Evaln. II 73 (1994); EU Rev. Rep. SANCO/171/08 (2008); EFSA Sci. Rep. (2008) 176, 1-109. EU Status (1107/2009) Approved, 2008/125/EC.
MAMMALIAN TOXICOLOGY
Oral Acute oral LD50 for male rats 4000, female rats 1700, mice c. 3000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >5000 mg/kg (in physiological saline solution). Non-irritating to skin; mild irritant to eyes (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats 0.37 mg/l air (aerosol), >5.1 mg/l (dust). NOEL (2 y) for rats 300 mg/kg diet, dogs 100 mg/kg diet (2.95 mg/kg b.w.), mice 20 mg/kg diet. ADI (JMPR) 0.03 mg/kg b.w. [1994]; (EC) 0.03 mg/kg b.w. [2008]; (EPA) 0.03 mg/kg b.w. [1999]. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III EPA (formulation) II (‘Elite’ 45DF); III (‘Folicur’ 3.6F) EC classification Xn; R22| R63| N; R51/53
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Birds Acute oral LD50 for male Japanese quail 4438, female Japanese quail 2912, bobwhite quail 1988 mg/kg b.w. Dietary LC50 (5 d) for mallard ducks >4816, bobwhite quail >5000 mg/kg feed. Fish LC50 (96 h, flow-through) for rainbow trout 4.4, bluegill sunfish 5.7 mg/l. Daphnia LC50 (48 h, flow-through) 2.79 mg/l. Algae ErC50 (72 h, static) for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata 3.80 mg/l. Other aquatic spp. EC15 (28 d) for Chironomus riparius 2.51 mg/l. Bees LD50 (48 h, oral) >83 μg/bee; (contact) >200 μg/bee. Worms Acute LC50 (14 d) for Eisenia foetida 1381 mg/kg dry soil. Other beneficial spp. No adverse effects on ground dwellers, e.g. ground beetles (Poecilus cupreus) (adults and larvae) or on foliage dwellers, e.g. ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata), up to 375 g/ha (EW 250 formulation).

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